Delegates vs. Function Pointers, Addendum: Multicast Delegates

Until now, I've been focusing on only one of the differences between delegates and function pointers; namely, associated state.
Delegates have one other capability that function pointers do not.  A single function pointer can only point to one function.  .Net, on the other hand, supports multicast delegates – delegates that point to multiple functions.  You can combine two existing delegates using the + operator (or by calling Delegate.Combine) to create a single new delegate instance that points two all of the methods in the original two delegates.  This new delegate stores all of the methods from the original two delegates in a private array of delegates called InvocationList (the delegates in this array are ordinary non-multicast delegates that each only point to a single method). 

Note that delegates, like strings, are immutable.  Adding two delegates together creates a third delegate containing the methods from the first two; the original delegate instances are not affected.  For example, writing delegateField += SomeMethod creates a new delegate instance containing the methods originally in delegateField as well as SomeMethod, then stores this new instance in delegateField.

Similarly, the - operator (or Delegate.Remove) will remove the second operand from the first one (again, returning a new delegate instance).  If the second operand has multiple methods, all of them will be removed from the final delegate.  If some of the methods in the second operand appear multiple times in the original delegate, only the last occurrence of each one will be removed (the one most recently added).  The RemoveAll method will remove all occurrences.  If all of the methods were removed, it will return null; there is no such thing as an empty delegate instance.

Multicast delegates are not intended to be used with delegates that return values.  If you call a non-void delegate that contains multiple methods, it will return the return value of the last method in the delegate.  If you want to see the return values of all of the methods, you’ll need to loop over GetInvocationList() and call each delegate individually.

Multicast delegates also don’t play well with the new covariant and contravariant generic delegates in .Net 4.0.  You cannot combine two delegates unless their types match exactly, including variant generic parameters.

Function pointers cannot easily be combined the way multicast delegates can.  The only way to combine function pointers without cooperation from the code that calls the pointer is to make a function that uses a closure to call all of the function pointers you want to call.

In Javascript, that would look like this:

function combine() {
    var methods = arguments;

    return function() { 
        var retVal;
        for(var i = 0; i < methods.length; i++) 
            retVal = methods[i].apply(this, arguments);
        return retVal;


I'm not sure what your stress is, and I am not sure that side stepping normal activities is your best bet, due to the scarce amount of data you have provided. But I can give you a few suggestions for every day stresses.
Many people do meditation, others work out, some engage in social actions with kin and/or friends in order to reconnect and move away from the cause of the stress. There are also those who will lovingly and wastefully pamper themselves with long soaks in a tub, scented candles, and relaxing music.
I will suggest that you assess and know what the root cause of your stress is. If you cannot ease the stress by kind why you are knowing-how it, then maybe you should form a plan and even discuss with others what type of practical events you might be able to take in sort to move away from the source of this stress, once and for every.
One of the best ways to keep away from stress when you are going through a hard time is to try to take the best care of yourself that you maybe can. Stay hydrated, eat well, and try to get sufficient sleep. I know that is easier said than done sometimes, but it really will help if you can do it.
Also, it really depends on what hard times you are going through. Right away I'm going through a cute rough patch for myself. My boyfriend died 5 weeks ago. There are sure things that I've let go, in order to stay myself from string too much. Clearly I'm not going to let my house get filthy, but if I cannot vacuum every day, will that really hurt my family? No. If we have to drag laundry out of the storage bin in its place of out of the closet or drawers, does that really matter? No. Letting go of some of the more minor things is freeing. @ cheap essay writing service

If you are searching for a professional resume writing service, you are only a few clicks away from your desired goal. To get your perfectly tailored resume, all you have to do is to register on this website and provide all the detailed information about your order.

These are the most typical topics of my IT academics life Delegates & Function Pointers, and for my last assignment I took help from the professional aou assignment writing services and they helped me to came out from the hundled of the concepts of Delegates pointers and functions pointers.

Nice Information Thanks for sharing this useful information with us. could you please review my website where we can apply the same website url is:"

Hello there! Does your best friend asks you to do his dull home assignments and other tasks, but you do not wanna do that?! You can show him this superior online professional term paper writers company, that could just solve any of his study problems and you will be free of it.

A function pointer is a variable that we usually used for different purposes. I also use this for my variables which I used for my site namely the best content writing services to promote my work. I hope in future you will share other posts related to this topic

Their assignment writers across the globe are well trained in their chosen field of study which reflects in multiple offer. Economics Homework Helper It is important to choose the best one among the many.

This above article is nice and quite interesting Thank you to willing to share us. We are starting a firm which is based on a Best place to buy used cars Melbourne for you. If you are looking to buy your car in very low rates you can visit us.

I was hunting for someone to Write My Dissertation For Me when I stumbled across your page. This page does not contain the information that I was looking for, but I must admit that the author of this content is rather inventive. Exceptionally beautifully worded

This is really informative post. I am glad to see this post. How the author write their thought in their writing style. I am founder of my
osha 30 hour constructions course

Since the demand for social media apps is very high lately, it's super difficult to find someone who can create the perfect social media app for you, that too within your budget. Luckily, I got a hold of a Social Media App Development Services In The USA. This firm has expert social media app developers that would help you to create a profound app that you will simply love. I’m fully satisfied with their services!

스포츠토토 I was looking forward to more updates. KEEP POSTING!!

You did cheerfully empower me because of the ideas you have posted.

토토사이트 The style of this site is great the aspect is truly incredible

Thankѕ for sharing your thoughts. I truly appreciate you efforts and
I will be waiting for your further write uᥙps thank you once


I am pleased that I observed this site, exactly the right information that I was searching for!


will wait for posts like this and will read them with pleasure.


Each topic mentioned above is a result of our team’s complete efforts and hard work. This shows how passionate we are about our work and serving you with the best solution. Moreover, if you are looking for some trending topics, then this is the right place you have reached. We have a great list of finance thesis topics that will fulfill your need.

This comment has been removed by the author.

Are you looking for a reliable QQI assignment helper? Our team of QQI assignment experts is here to provide you with top-quality assistance with your QQI assessments. With our help, you can achieve academic success and reach your full potential. You can trust us to provide you with top-quality work that is tailored to your specific needs

Because they can offer readers useful information on a range of subjects, informative blogs are crucial. They can be a terrific way to broaden your knowledge, keep current with current affairs, and gain professional advice. Informative blogs can be a terrific way to meet people who have similar interests to your own.
Calgary security services The ideal firm to hire security services from is security services Calgary.

Post a Comment